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第六輪―肯尼迪回合

來源:外貿知識網 時間:2007-12-26 23:15:16

  1964年5月至1967年6月在瑞士日內瓦舉行的第六輪談判是當時美國總統肯尼迪根據1962年通過的美國《貿易拓展法》提議召開的,又稱“肯尼迪回合”。1964年5月起,美國開始與共同體六國以及總協定其他成員進行削減關稅談判。美國提出有關國家各減關稅50%的建議,而西歐國家認為如各減關稅50%,美國關稅仍高于西歐國家,因此提出“削平”方案,即高現成香港公司轉讓關稅國家多減,低關稅國家少減,以縮小雙方的關稅差距。這輪談判歷時三年多,1967年7月才勉強達成協議,商定從1968年起的五年內,美國工業品關稅平均降低37%,而西歐各國則平均削減35%,涉及關稅減讓商品項目合計達60000項之多,平均降低關稅35%。這輪談判是1973年以前關稅與貿易總協定所主持的所有談判中最廣泛、最復雜的一次,共有占世界貿易額約75%的54個國家參加。談判第一次涉及了非關稅壁壘,關稅與貿易總協定第六條雖注冊英國公司復不復雜然規定了反傾銷和反補貼稅的馬耳他國債移民“黃金期”延長三個月,請抓緊趕上末班車定義、征收這兩類稅種的要件和幅度,但各國為保護本國產業,濫用總協定第六條的情況時有發生。這輪談判制定了第一個反傾銷協議,即總協定第六條的實施細則。美國、英國、日本等21個國家簽署了該協議,反傾銷協議于1968年7月1日生效。

  締約方數量的增加是這一時期關稅與貿易總協定一個顯著變化。60年代至70年代,相繼獨立的發展中國家加入了關稅與貿易總協定。1965年2月,就在“肯尼迪回合”的談判進程中,關稅與貿易總協定新增了一個重要的部分。即第四部分“貿易與發展”,清晰地闡明了有關發展中國家指導本國貿易政策的總目標。這一回合還開創了讓波蘭作為一個“中央計劃經濟國家”參加關稅與貿易總協定多邊貿易談判的先例。

 

世界貿易組織第四屆部長級會議“與實施有關的問題和關注”中文參考譯文

世界貿易組織第四屆部長級會議“與實施有關的問題和關注”中文參考譯文 來源:外貿知識網 時間:2007-12-26 23:12:36

2001年11月14日決定第四屆部長級會議
  注意到《馬拉喀什建立世界貿易組織協定》第4條第1款、第5款和第9條;
  考慮到成員們對發展中國家更多地參與多邊貿易體制所給予的重視,及保證該體制充分回應所有參加方的利益和需要的需要; 
 決定采取切實的行動以處理許多發展中國家成員就一些WTO協定和決定的實施所提出的問題和關注,包括在實施各領域的義務過程中遇到的困難和資源限制; 
  憶及總理事會召開特會于2000年5月3日作出的決定,以處理未決實施問題,并評估現存困難、確定解決困難所需途徑以及不遲于第四屆部長級會議就適當行動而作出決定; 
  注意到總理事會根據此項授權在2000年10月和12月(WT/L/384)的特會上采取的行動,以及在2001年4月、7月和10月的專門會議進行的審議和進一步討論,包括將額外問題轉交相關WTO機構或其主席供進一步工作; 
  還注意到關于下附機構及其主席和總干事向總理事會提出的問題的報告,以及自2000年5月以來在此進程中舉行的密集的非正式和正式會議中就實施問題進行的討論及所提供的澄清和達成的理解;

決定如下:

1. 《1994年關稅與貿易總協定》(GATT 1994) 
  1.1 重申GATT 1994第18條是針對發展中國家的一項特殊與差別待遇條款,援用該條款所負有的法律義務應少于GATT 1994第12條。 
  1.2 注意到市場準入委員會主席關于GATT 1994第13條第2款(d)項中“實質利益”表述所給予含義的報告(WT/GC/50)中提出的問題,市場準入委員會受命對該問題做進一步考慮,并盡快且無論如何不遲于2002年年底向總理事會提出建議。

2. 《農業協定》 
  2.1 敦促成員們在對發展中國家所通知的為促進農村發展和充分處理食品安全關注而在綠箱下采取的措施進行質疑方面采取克制。
  2.2 注意到農業委員會關于《關于改革計劃對最不發達國家和糧食凈進口發展中國家可能產生消極影響的措施的決定》的實施情況的報告(G/AG/11),并批準其中關于下列內容的建議:(i)食品援助;(ii)改善農業生產力和基礎設施的援助計劃框架下的技術和財政援助;(iii)資助基本食品商業進口的正常水平;以及(iv)對后續行動的審議。
  2.3 注意到農業委員會關于實施《農業協定》第10.2款的報告(G/AG/11),并批準其中包含的建議和報告要求。
  2.4 注意到農業委員會關于關稅配額管理及成員們提交的通知附錄的報告,并接受委員會關于審議此事項的決定。

3. 《實施衛生與植物衛生措施協定》
  3.1 如衛生與植物衛生保護的適當水平允許逐步采用新的衛生與植物衛生措施,則《實施衛生與植物衛生措施協定》第10.2款提及的“更長的時限以符合該措施”的表述,應理解為通常不少于6個月的期限。如衛生與植物衛生保護的適當水平不允許逐步采用新措施,但一成員確定了具體問題,則實施該措施的成員應請求應與該國進行磋商,以期找到一個相互滿意的解決問題的辦法,同時繼續達到該進口成員適當的保護水平。 
  3.2 在符合《實施衛生與植物衛生措施協定》附件B第2款所列條件的前提下,“合理時間間隔” 應理解為通常不少于6個月的期限。各方理解具體措施的時限必須在該措施的特定情形和實施該措施所必需的行動的框架內加以考慮。有助于貿易自由化的措施的生效不得被不必要地延遲。
  3.3 注意到衛生與植物衛生措施委員會關于等效的決定(G/SPS/19),并指示該委員會盡快制定促進實施《衛生與植物衛生措施協定》第4條的具體方案。
  3.4 根據《實施衛生與植物衛生措施協定》第12.7款的規定,衛生與植物衛生措施委員會受命至少每四年審議《實施衛生與植物衛生措施協定》的運用和實施。
  3.5 (i)注意到迄今為止總干事為促進不同發展水平的成員更多參與相關國際標準制定機構的工作所采取的行動,以及他為在確定與SPS有關的技術援助需求和如何更好地處理這些需求過程中與這些組織和金融機構進行協調而所做的努力;及
  3.6 (ii)敦促總干事繼續其在此方面與這些組織和機構進行使用的努力,包括旨在為使最不發達國家有效參與而所給予的優先考慮及便利為此進行的技術和財政援助的提供。
  3.7 (i)敦促成員們在可能的限度內提供使最不發達國家能夠對任何新的、可能對其貿易產生巨大消極影響的SPS措施的采用做出充分反應的必要財政和技術援助;及
  3.8 (ii)敦促成員們保證向最不發達國家提供技術援助,以期對在實施《實施衛生與植物衛生措施協定》過程中他們所面臨的特殊困難做出反應。

4. 《紡織品與服裝協定》
  重申關于全面和忠實實施《紡織品與服裝協定》的承諾,并同意:
  4.1 該協定中有關產品較早一體化和取消配額限制的規定應有效利用。
  4.2 在該協定全面融入WTO后的兩年時間內,對于原受該協定項下數量限制的來自發展中國家的紡織品和服裝出口,在發起反傾銷補救調查前給予特殊考慮。
  4.3 在不損害其權利和義務的前提下,成員們將就其原產地規則中有關屬該協定范圍的產品的任何變更情況向原產地規則委員會作出通知,該委員會可決定對這些變更進行審查。
請求貨物貿易理事會審查下列建議:
  4.4 在計算小供應國的在該協定剩余年份中的配額水平時,成員們將自實施期開始時起,對這些成員適用增長條款下可獲得的最優惠方法;將相同待遇適用于最不發達國家;及如可能,取消針對此類成員進口的配額限制;
  4.5 成員們將計算針對其他受限成員的此協定剩余年份中的配額水平,如同第3階段增長條款的實施已提前至2000年1月1日。
并于2002年7月31日前向總理事會提出采取適當行動的建議。

5. 《技術性貿易壁壘協定》 
  5.1 確認技術性貿易壁壘委員會正在制定的技術援助途徑,此點反映了對該領域三年一次的審議工作的結果,并授權此項工作繼續進行。
  5.2 在符合《技術性貿易壁壘協定》第2條第12款所列條件的前提下,“合理時間間隔”應理解為應理解為通常不少于6個月的期限,除非這一期限無法滿足所尋求的合法目標。
  5.3 (i)注意到迄今為止總干事為促進不同發展水平的成員更多參與相關國際標準制定機構的工作所采取的行動,歐洲購房移民四大主流國家,該如何選擇?以及他為在確定與TBT有關的技術援助需求和如何更好地處理這些需求過程中與這些組織和金融機構進行協調而所做的努力;(ii)敦促總干事繼續其在此方面與這些組織和機構進行使用的努力,包括旨在為使最不發達國家有效參與而所給予的優先考慮及便利為此進行的技術和財政援助的提供。 
  5.4 (i)敦促成員們在可能的限度內提供使最不發達國家能夠對任何新的、可能對其貿易產生巨大消極影響的TBT措施的采用做出充分反應的必要財政和技術援助;及 (ii)敦促成員們保證向最不發達國家提供技術援助,以期對在實施《技術性貿易壁壘協定》過程中他們所面臨的特殊困難做出反應。

6. 《與貿易有關的投資措施協定》
  6.1 注意到貨物貿易理事會針對一些發展中國家成員提出的延長《與貿易有關的投資措施協定》第5.2款規定的5年過渡期的請求所采取的行動。
  6.2 敦促貨物貿易理事會積極考慮最不發達國家根據《TRIMs協定》第5.3款或《WTO協定》第9條第3款可能提出的請求,并考慮最不發達國家在制定包括時限在內的條款和條件時的特殊情形。

7. 《關于實施1994年關稅與貿易總協定第6條的協定》
  7.1 同意對于發起一項反傾銷調查的申請,如在提交申請前365天內對來自同一成員的相同產品的調查得出否定結果,則調查主管機關在審查該項申請時應予以特別注意,除非這一調查發起前進行的審查的表明情況已經變化,否則此項調查不得進行。
  7.2 認識到,雖然《關于實施1994年關稅與貿易總協定第6條的協定》第15條是一項強制性規定,但是其適用模式可從澄清中獲益。為此,反傾銷措施委員會受命通過其實施工作小組對該問題進行審查,并在12個月內制定如何使該規定得以運用的適當建議。
  7.3 注意到《關于實施1994年關稅與貿易總協定第6條的協定》第5.8款并未明確用于確定傾銷進口產品數量的時間框架,此種缺乏確切性對實施該規定造成了不確定性。反傾銷措施委員會受命通過其實施工作小組對該問題進行研究,并在12個月內制定建議,以期保證適用時間框架過程中最大可能的可預測性和客觀性。
&n選擇在哪個州注冊美國公司?特拉華州優勢VS內華達州優勢bsp; 7.4 注意到《關于實施1994年關稅與貿易總協定第6條的協定》第18.6款要求反傾銷措施委員會對該協定的實施和運用進行年度審議,同時考慮其目標。反傾銷措施委員會受指示制定改善年度審議的指導準則,并向總理事會報告其看法和建議,供其在隨后12個月內作出決定。

8. 《關于實施1994年關稅與貿易總協定第7條的協定》 
  8.1 注意到海關估價委員會就許多發展中國家成員關于延長《關于實施1994年關稅與貿易總協定第7條的協定》第20.1款規定的5年過渡期的請求所采取的行動。
  8.2 敦促貨物貿易理事會對最不發達國家根據《海關估價協定》附件3第1、2款或《WTO協定》第9.3款可能提出的請求給予積極考慮,并在確定包括時間框架在內的條款和條件時考慮最不發達國家的特殊情形。
  8.3 強調在防止海關欺詐方面加強成員們海關部門間合作的重要性。在此方面,各方同意,在1994年《關于海關有理由懷疑申報價格真實性與準確性的情況的部長決定》的基礎上,如一進口成員海關有理由懷疑申報價格的真實性或準確性,則它可就有關貨物的價格向出口成員海關尋求協助。在此類情況下,出口成員應在符合其國內法律和程序的前提下,提供合作和協助,包括提供有關貨物出口價格的信息。在此類情況下提供的任何信息均應依照《海關估價協定》第10條處理。此外,認識到若干進口成員海關對申報價格準確性的合法關注,海關估價委員會受命確定和評估處理此類關注的實際方法,包括交換出口價格的信息,并最遲于2002年年底向總理事會報告。

9. 《原產地規則協定》 怎樣注冊公司注冊公司需要什么
  9.1 注意到原產地規則委員會關于協調工作計劃的進展的報告(G/RO/48),敦促該委員會在2001年年底前完成其工作。
  9.2 同意,成員們在協調工作計劃的結果生效前的過渡期內所實施的關于原產地規則的任何臨時安排均應符合《原產地規則協定》,特別是其中第2條和第5條。在不損害成員權利和義務的情況下,此類安排可由原產地規則委員會進行審查。

10. 《補貼與反補貼措施協定》
  10.1 同意,在《補貼與反補貼措施協定》附件7(b)包括其中所列人均GNP連續三年達到(按1990年美元不變價格計算) 1000美元之前的成員。這一決定將待補貼與反補貼措施委員會通過一項計算1990年美元不變價格的適當方法后生效。但是,如補貼與反補貼措施委員會在2003年1月1日前未能就適當方法達成一致,則G/SCM/38文件附錄2所列該委員會主席所建議的方法將適用。只要一成員根據世界銀行最新數據其人均GNP按美元現行價值計算未達到1000美元,則該成員不必脫離附件7(b)。
  10.2 注意到關于將發展中國家為實現合法發展目標而實施的措施按照不可訴補貼處理的建議,這些目標包括地區發展、技術研究與發展融資、生產多樣化以及有利于環境的生產方法的開放與實施,并同意這一問題按照以下第13款處理。在談判過程中,敦促成員們在質疑此類措施時表現克制。
  10.3 同意補貼與反補貼委員會應繼續審議《補貼與反補貼措施協定》關于反補貼稅調查的規定,并于2002年7月31日前向總理事會報告。
  10.4 同意,如一成員已被排除在《補貼與反補貼措施協定》附件7(b)款清單之外,則待其人均GNP降至1000美元以下時,應被重新列入清單。 
  10.5 在符合第27.5款和第27.6款的前提下,各方重申,最不發達國家成員免于《補貼與反補貼措施協定》第3.1(a)項中所列關于出口補貼的禁止,因此在資助其出口商方面具有靈活性,符合其發展需要。各方理解,第27.5款中最不發達國家成員必須逐步取消對其具有出口競爭力的產品實行的出口補貼的8年期限應始于屬第27.6款意義的出口競爭力存在之日。
  10.6 對于某些發展中國家成員的特殊情況,指示補貼與反補貼措施委員會在《補貼與反補貼措施協定》第27.4款的指導下,根據文件G/SCM/39中所列程序,延長此類成員提供某些出口補貼的過渡期。此外,在《補貼與反補貼措施協定》第27.4款指導下考慮一項延長過渡期的請求時,為避免處于相似發展階段且在世界貿易中數量份額排名相似的成員,在為同樣合格的項目而接受此類延期和此類延期長度方面受到不同待遇,指示該委員會在考慮根據G/SCM/39號文件所列程序請求延長過渡期的其他發展中國家成員的相對競爭力后,再延長這些發展中國家的過渡期。

11. 《與貿易有關的知識產權協定》(TRIPS)
  11.1 指示TRIPS理事會繼續其對GATT聯1994第23條第1款(b)項和(c)項下規定類型起訴的范圍和模式,并向第五屆部長級會議提出建議。同時,各方同意成員們將不根據《TRIPS協定》發起此類起訴。 
  11.2 重申《TRPS協定》第66.2款的規定屬強制性,各方同意TRIPS理事會應設立一機制以保證所涉義務的監督和全面實施。為此,發達國家成員應在2002年年底前提交關于其履行第66.2款下承諾為技術轉讓目的而向其企業提供鼓勵的詳細實際實施報告。此類提交應由TRIPS理事會審議,信息應由成員進行年度更新。

12. 跨領域問題 
  12.1 貿易與發展委員會受命:
  (i) 確定性質已屬強制性和性質屬非約束性的特殊與差別待遇條款,考慮將特殊與差別待遇措施轉為強制性規定對發達和發展中國家的法律和實際影響,確定成員們認為應成為強制性的規定,并于2002年7月前向總理事會報告,并提供明確的建議,供其作出決定;
  (ii) 審查可使特殊與差別待遇條款更為有效的額外途徑,考慮包括改善的信息流在內的途徑,其中發展中國家,特別是最不發達國家,可獲幫助以最佳利用特殊與差別待遇條款,并于2002年7月前向總理事會報告,并提供明確的建議,供其作出決定;以及
  (iii) 在第四屆部長級會議通過的工作計劃內,考慮如何將特殊與差別待遇并入WTO規則體系。
貿易與發展委員會在這方面的工作應充分考慮記錄在WT/COMTD/W/77/Rev.1號文件中的以往所做工作。且將不損害總理事會及其他理事會和委員會中有關實施WTO各項協定的工作。
  12.2 重申根據1979年12月28日締約方的決定(“授權條款”) 給予發展中國家的優惠應屬普遍的、非對等的和非歧視性的。

13. 未決實施問題
  同意未決實施問題應依照部長宣言(WT/MIN(01)DEC/1)第12段加以解決。

14. 最后條款

請示總干事,在符合部長宣言(WT/MIN(01)DEC/1)第38至43段的前提下,保證WTO技術援助優先集中于幫助發展中國家實施現有WTO義務及提高其更有效參與未來多邊貿易談判的能力方面。在執行這一授權時,WTO秘書處應與國際和區域政府間組織進行更緊密合作,以提高效率,加強配合,避免計劃重復。

世界貿易組織第四屆部長級會議《部長宣言》

世界貿易組織第四屆部長級會議《部長宣言》 來源:外貿知識網 時間:2007-12-26 23:11:58

MINISTERIAL DECLARATION

Adopted on 14 November 2001
  1. The multilateral trading system embodied in the World Trade Organization has contributed significantly to economic growth, development and employment throughout the past fifty years. We are determined, particularly in the light of the global economic slowdown, to maintain the process of reform and liberalization of trade policies, thus ensuring that the system plays its full part in promoting recovery, growth and development. We therefore strongly reaffirm the principles and objectives set out in the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, and pledge to reject the use of protectionism.

2. International trade can play a major role in the promotion of economic development and the alleviation of poverty. We recognize the need for all our peoples to benefit from the increased opportunities and welfare gains that the multilateral trading system generates. The majority of WTO Members are developing countries. We seek to place their needs and interests at the heart of the Work Programme adopted in this Declaration. Recalling the Preamble to the Marrakesh Agreement, we shall continue to make positive efforts designed to ensure that developing countries, and especially the least-developed among them, secure a share in the growth of world trade commensurate with the needs of their economic development. In this context, enhanced market access, balanced rules, and well targeted, sustainably financed technical assistance and capacity-building programmes have important roles to play.

3. We recognize the particular vulnerability of the least-developed countries and the special structural difficulties they face in the global economy. We are committed to addressing the marginalization of least-developed countries in international trade and to improving their effective participation in the multilateral trading system. We recall the commitments made by Ministers at our meetings in Marrakesh, Singapore and Geneva, and by the international community at the Third UN Conference on Least-Developed Countries in Brussels, to help least-developed countries secure beneficial and meaningful integration into the multilateral trading system and the global economy. We are determined that the WTO will play its part in building effectively on these commitments under the Work Programme we are establishing.

4. We stress our commitment to the WTO as the unique forum for global trade rule-making and liberalization, while also recognizing that regional trade agreements can play an important role in promoting the liberalization and expansion of trade and in fostering development.

5. We are aware that the challenges Members face in a rapidly changing international environment cannot be addressed through measures taken in the trade field alone. We shall continue to work with the Bretton Woods institutions for greater coherence in global economic policy-making.

6. We strongly reaffirm our commitment to the objective of sustainable development, as stated in the Preamble to the Marrakesh Agreement. We are convinced that the aims of upholding and safeguarding an open and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system, and acting for the protection of the environment and the promotion of sustainable development can and must be mutually supportive. We take note of the efforts by Members to conduct national environmental assessments of trade policies on a voluntary basis. We recognize that under WTO rules no country should be prevented from taking measures for the protection of human, animal or plant life or health, or of the environment at the levels it considers appropriate, subject to the requirement that they are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, and are otherwise in accordance with the provisions of the WTO Agreements. We welcome the WTO′s continued cooperation with UNEP and other inter-governmental environmental organizations. We encourage efforts to promote cooperation between the WTO and relevant international environmental and developmental organizations, especially in the lead-up to the World Summit on Sustainable Development to be held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in September 2002.

7. We reaffirm the right of Members under the General Agreement on Trade in Services to regulate, and to introduce new regulations on, the supply of services.

8. We reaffirm our declaration made at the Singapore Ministerial Conference regarding internationally recognized core labour standards. We take note of work under way in the International Labour Organization (ILO) on the social dimension of globalization.

9. We note with particular satisfaction that this Conference has completed the WTO accession procedures for China and Chinese Taipei. We also welcome the accession as new Members, since our last Session, of Albania, Croatia, Georgia, Jordan, Lithuania, Moldova and Oman, and note the extensive market-access commitments already made by these countries on accession. These accessions will greatly strengthen the multilateral trading system, as will those of the 28 countries now negotiating their accession. We therefore attach great importance to concluding accession proceedings as quickly as possible. In particular, we are committed to accelerating the accession of least-developed countries.

10. Recognizing the challenges posed by an expanding WTO membership, we confirm our collective responsibility to ensure internal transparency and the effective participation of all Members. While emphasizing the intergovernmental character of the organization, we are committed to making the WTO’s operations more transparent, including through more effective and prompt dissemination of information, and to improve dialogue with the public. We shall therefore at the national and multilateral levels continue to promote a better public understanding of the WTO and to communicate the benefits of a liberal, rules-based multilateral trading system.

 11. In view of these considerations, we hereby agree to undertake the broad and balanced Work Programme set out below. This incorporates both an expanded negotiating agenda and other important decisions and activities necessary to address the challenges facing the multilateral trading system.


WORK PROGRAMME

IMPLEMENTATION-RELATED ISSUES AND CONCERNS

12. We attach the utmost importance to the implementation-related issues and concerns raised by Members and are determined to find appropriate solutions to them. In this connection, and having regard to the General Council Decisions of 3 May and 15 December 2000, we further adopt the Decision on Implementation-Related Issues and Concerns in document WT/MIN(01)/17 to address a number of implementation problems faced by Members. We agree that negotiations on outstanding implementation issues shall be an integral part of the Work Programme we are establishing, and that agreements reached at an early stage in these negotiations shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 47 below. In this regard, we shall proceed as follows: (a) where we provide a specific negotiating mandate in this Declaration, the relevant implementation issues shall be addressed under that mandate; (b) the other outstanding implementation issues shall be addressed as a matter of priority by the relevant WTO bodies, which shall report to the Trade Negotiations Committee, established under paragraph 46 below, by the end of 2002 for appropriate action.


AGRICULTURE

13. We recognize the work already undertaken in the negotiations initiated in early 2000 under Article 20 of the Agreement on Agriculture, including the large number of negotiating proposals submitted on behalf of a total of 121 Members. We recall the long-term objective referred to in the Agreement to establish a fair and market-oriented trading system through a programme of fundamental reform encompassing strengthened rules and specific commitments on support and protection in order to correct and prevent restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets. We reconfirm our commitment to this programme. Building on the work carried out to date and without prejudging the outcome of the negotiations we commit ourselves to comprehensive negotiations aimed at: substantial improvements in market access; reductions of, with a view to phasing out, all forms of export subsidies; and substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support. We agree that special and differential treatment for developing countries shall be an integral part of all elements of the negotiations and shall be embodied in the Schedules of concessions and commitments and as appropriate in the rules and disciplines to be negotiated, so as to be operationally effective and to enable developing countries to effectively take account of their development needs, including food security and rural development. We take note of the non-trade concerns reflected in the negotiating proposals submitted by Members and confirm that non-trade concerns will be taken into account in the negotiations as provided for in the Agreement on Agriculture.

14. Modalities for the further commitments, including provisions for special and differential treatment, shall be established no later than 31 March 2003. Participants shall submit their comprehensive draft Schedules based on these modalities no later than the date of the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The negotiations, including with respect to rules and disciplines and related legal texts, shall be concluded as part and at the date of conclusion of the negotiating agenda as a whole.


SERVICES

15. The negotiations on trade in services shall be conducted with a view to promoting the economic growth of all trading partners and the development of developing and least-developed countries. We recognize the work already undertaken in the negotiations, initiated in January 2000 under Article XIX of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, and the large number of proposals submitted by Members on a wide range of sectors and several horizontal issues, as well as on movement of natural persons. We reaffirm the Guidelines and Procedures for the Negotiations adopted by the Council for Trade in Services on 28 March 2001 as the basis for continuing the negotiations, with a view to achieving the objectives of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, as stipulated in the Preamble, Article IV and Article XIX of that Agreement. Participants shall submit initial requests for specific commitments by 30 June 2002 and initial offers by 31 March 2003.


MARKET ACCESS FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

16. We agree to negotiations which shall aim, by modalities to be agreed, to reduce or as appropriate eliminate tariffs, including the reduction or elimination of tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation, as well as non-tariff barriers, in particular on products of export interest to developing countries. Product coverage shall be comprehensive and without a priori exclusions. The negotiations shall take fully into account the special needs and interests of developing and least-developed country participants, including through less than full reciprocity in reduction commitments, in accordance with the relevant provisions of Article XXVIII bis of GATT 1994 and the provisions cited in paragraph 50 below. To this end, the modalities to be agreed will include appropriate studies and capacity-building measures to assist least-developed countries to participate effectively in the negotiations.


TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

17. We stress the importance we attach to implementation and interpretation of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) in a manner supportive of public health, by promoting both access to existing medicines and research and development into new medicines and, in this connection, are adopting a separate Declaration.

18. With a view to completing the work started in the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (Council for TRIPS) on the implementation of Article 23.4, we agree to negotiate the establishment of a multilateral system of notification and registration of geographical indications for wines and spirits by the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. We note that issues related to the extension of the protection of geographical indications provided for in Article 23 to products other than wines and spirits will be addressed in the Council for TRIPS pursuant to paragraph 12 of this Declaration.

19. We instruct the Council for TRIPS, in pursuing its work programme including under the review of Article 27.3(b), the review of the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement under Article 71.1 and the work foreseen pursuant to paragraph 12 of this Declaration, to examine, inter alia, the relationship between the TRIPS Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity, the protection of traditional knowledge and folklore, and other relevant new developments raised by Members pursuant to Article 71.1. In undertaking this work, the TRIPS Council shall be guided by the objectives and principles set out in Articles 7 and 8 of the TRIPS Agreement and shall take fully into account the development dimension.


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRADE AND INVESTMENT

20. Recognizing the case for a multilateral framework to secure transparent, stable and predictable conditions for long-term cross-border investment, particularly foreign direct investment, that will contribute to the expansion of trade, and the need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity-building in this area as referred to in paragraph

21. we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that Session on modalities of negotiations.

technical assistance and capacity building in this area, including policy analysis and development so that they may better evaluate the implications of closer multilateral cooperation for their development policies and objectives, and human and institutional development. To this end, we shall work in cooperation with other relevant intergovernmental organisations, including UNCTAD, and through appropriate regional and bilateral channels, to provide strengthened and adequately resourced assistance to respond to these needs.

22. In the period until the Fifth Session, further work in the Working Group on the Relationship Between Trade and Investment will focus on the clarification of: scope and definition; transparency; non-discrimination; modalities for pre-establishment commitments based on a GATS-type, positive list approach; development provisions; exceptions and balance-of-payments safeguards; consultation and the settlement of disputes between Members. Any framework should reflect in a balanced manner the interests of home and host countries, and take due account of the development policies and objectives of host governments as well as their right to regulate in the public interest. The special development, trade and financial needs of developing and least-developed countries should be taken into account as an integral part of any framework, which should enable Members to undertake obligations and commitments commensurate with their individual needs and circumstances. Due regard should be paid to other relevant WTO provisions. Account should be taken, as appropriate, of existing bilateral and regional arrangements on investment.


INTERACTION BETWEEN TRADE AND COMPETITION POLICY

23. Recognizing the case for a multilateral framework to enhance the contribution of competition policy to international trade and development, and the need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity-building in this area as referred to in paragraph 24, we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that Session on modalities of negotiations.

24. We recognize the needs of developing and least-developed countries for enhanced support for technical assistance and capacity building in this area, including policy analysis and development so that they may better evaluate the implications of closer multilateral cooperation for their development policies and objectives, and human and institutional development. To this end, we shall work in cooperation with other relevant intergovernmental organisations, including UNCTAD, and through appropriate regional and bilateral channels, to provide strengthened and adequately resourced assistance to respond to these needs.

25. In the period until the Fifth Session, further work in the Working Group on the Interaction between Trade and Competition Policy will focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness, and provisions on hardcore cartels; modalities for voluntary cooperation; and support for progressive reinforcement of competition institutions in developing countries through capacity building. Full account shall be taken of the needs of developing and least-developed country participants and appropriate flexibility provided to address them.


TRANSPARENCY IN GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT

26. Recognizing the case for a multilateral agreement on transparency in government procurement and the need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity building in this area, we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that Session on modalities of negotiations. These negotiations will build on the progress made in the Working Group on Transparency in Government Procurement by that time and take into account participants' development priorities, especially those of least-developed country participants. Negotiations shall be limited to the transparency aspects and therefore will not restrict the scope for countries to give preferences to domestic supplies and suppliers. We commit ourselves to ensuring adequate technical assistance and support for capacity building both during the negotiations and after their conclusion.


TRADE FACILITATION

27. Recognizing the case for further expediting the movement, release and clearance of goods, including goods in transit, and the need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity building in this area, we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that Session on modalities of negotiations. In the period until the Fifth Session, the Council for Trade in Goods shall review and as appropriate, clarify and improve relevant aspects of Articles V, VIII and X of the GATT 1994 and identify the trade facilitation needs and priorities of Members, in particular developing and least-developed countries. We commit ourselves to ensuring adequate technical assistance and support for capacity building in this area.


WTO RULES

28. In the light of experience and of the increasing application of these instruments by Members, we agree to negotiations aimed at clarifying and improving disciplines under the Agreements on Implementation of Article VI of the GATT 1994 and on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, while preserving the basic concepts, principles and effectiveness of these Agreements and their instruments and objectives, and taking into account the needs of developing and least-developed participants. In the initial phase of the negotiations, participants will indicate the provisions, including disciplines on trade distorting practices, that they seek to clarify and improve in the subsequent phase. In the context of these negotiations, participants shall also aim to clarify and improve WTO disciplines on fisheries subsidies, taking into account the importance of this sector to developing countries. We note that fisheries subsidies are also referred to in paragraph 31.

29. We also agree to negotiations aimed at clarifying and improving disciplines and procedures under the existing WTO provisions applying to regional trade agreements. The negotiations shall take into account the developmental aspects of regional trade agreements.


DISPUTE SETTLEMENT UNDERSTANDING

 30. We agree to negotiations on improvements and clarifications of the Dispute Settlement Understanding. The negotiations should be based on the work done thus far as well as any a外貿進出口退稅具體應怎么操作dditional proposals by Members, and aim to agree on improvements and clarifications not later than May 2003, at which time we will take steps to ensure that the results enter into force as soon as possible thereafter.


TRADE AND ENVIRONMENT

31. With a view to enhancing the mutual supportiveness of trade and environment, we agree to negotiations, without prejudging their outcome, on:

(i) the relationship between existing WTO rules and specific trade obligations set out in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). The negotiations shall be limited in scope to the applicability of such existing WTO rules as among parties to the MEA in question. The negotiations shall not prejudice the WTO rights of any Member that is not a party to the MEA in question;

(ii) procedures for regular information exchange between MEA Secretariats and the relevant WTO committees, and the criteria for the granting of observer status;

(iii) the reduction or, as appropriate, elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers to environmental goods and services.

We note that fisheries subsidies form part of the negotiations provided for in paragraph 28.

32. We instruct the Committee on Trade and Environment, in pursuing work on all items on its agenda within its current terms of reference, to give particular attention to:

(i) the effect of environmental measures on market access, especially in relation to developing countries, in particular the least-developed among them, and those situations in which the elimination or reduction of trade restrictions and distortions would benefit trade, the environment and development;

(ii) the relevant provisions of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and

(iii) labelling requirements for environmental purposes.

Work on these issues should include the identification of any need to clarify relevant WTO rules. The Committee shall report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference, and make recommendations, where appropriate, with respect to future action, including the desirability of negotiations. The outcome of this work as well as the negotiations carried out underparagraph   

 31(i) and (ii) shall be compatible with the open and non-discriminatory nature of the multilateral trading system, shall not add to or diminish the rights and obligations of Members under existing WTO agreements, in particular the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, nor alter the balance of these rights and obligations, and will take into account the needs of developing and least-developed countries.

33. We recognize the importance of technical assistance and capacity building in the field of trade and environment to developing countries, in particular the least-developed among them. We also encourage that expertise and experience be shared with Members wishing to perform environmental reviews at the national level. A report shall be prepared on these activities for the Fifth Session.


ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

34. We take note of the work which has been done in the General Council and other relevant bodies since the Ministerial Declaration of 20 May 1998 and agree to continue the Work Programme on Electronic Commerce. The work to date demonstrates that electronic commerce creates new challenges and opportunities for trade for Members at all stages of development, and we recognize the importance of creating and maintaining an environment which is favourable to the future development of electronic commerce. We instruct the General Council to consider the most appropriate institutional arrangements for handling the Work Programme, and to re注冊有限公司詳細程序port on further progress to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. We declare that Members will maintain their current practice of not imposing customs duties on electronic transmissions until the Fifth Session.


SMALL ECONOMIES

35. We agree to a work programme, under the auspices of the General Council, to examine issues relating to the trade of small economies. The objective of this work is to frame responses to the trade-related issues identified for the fuller integration of small, vulnerable economies into the multilateral trading system, and not to create a sub-category of WTO Members. The General Council shall review the work programme and make recommendations for action to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference.


TRADE, DEBT AND FINANCE

36. We agree to an examination, in a Working Group under the auspices of the General Council, of the relationship between trade, debt and finance, and of any possible recommendations on steps that might be taken within the mandate and competence of the WTO to enhance the capacity of the multilateral trading system to contribute to a durable solution to the problem of external indebtedness of developing and least-developed countries, and to strengthen the coherence of international trade and financial policies, with a view to safeguarding the multilateral trading system from the effects of financial and monetary instability. The General Council shall report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on progress in the examination.


TRADE AND TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY

37. We agree to an examination, in a Working Group under the auspices of the General Council, of the relationship between trade and transfer of technology, and of any possible recommendations on steps that might be taken within the mandate of the WTO to increase flows of technology to developing countries. The General Council shall report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on progress in the examination.


TECHNICAL COOPERATION AND CAPACITY BUILDING

38. We confirm that technical cooperation and capacity building are core elements of the development dimension of the multilateral trading system, and we welcome and endorse the New Strategy for WTO Technical Cooperation for Capacity Building, Growth and Integration. We instruct the Secretariat, in coordination with other relevant agencies, to support domestic efforts for mainstreaming trade into national plans for economic development and strategies for poverty reduction. The delivery of WTO technical assistance shall be designed to assist developing and least-developed countries and low-income countries in transition to adjust to WTO rules and disciplines, implement obligations and exercise the rights of membership, including drawing on the benefits of an open, rules-based multilateral trading system. Priority shall also be accorded to small, vulnerable, and transition economies, as well as to Members and Observers without representation in Geneva. We reaffirm our support for the valuable work of the International Trade Centre, which should be enhanced.

39. We underscore the urgent necessity for the effective coordinated delivery of technical assistance with bilateral donors, in the OECD Development Assistance Committee and relevant international and regional intergovernmental institutions, within a coherent policy framework and timetable. In the coordinated delivery of technical assistance, we instruct the Director-General to consult with the relevant agencies, bilateral donors and beneficiaries, to identify ways of enhancing and rationalizing the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least-Developed Countries and the Joint Integrated Technical Assistance Programme (JITAP).

40. We agree that there is a need for technical assistance to benefit from secure and predictable funding. We therefore instruct the Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration to develop a plan for adoption by the General Council in December 2001 that will ensure long-term funding for WTO technical assistance at an overall level no lower than that of the current year and commensurate with the activities outlined above.

41. We have established firm commitments on technical cooperation and capacity building in various paragraphs in this Ministerial Declaration. We reaffirm these specific commitments contained in paragraphs 16, 21, 24, 26, 27, 33, 38-40, 42 and 43, and also reaffirm the understanding in paragraph 2 on the important role of sustainably financed technical assistance and capacity-building programmes. We instruct the Director-General to report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference, with an interim report to the General Council in December 2002 on the implementation and adequacy of these commitments in the identified paragraphs.


LEAST-DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

42. We acknowledge the seriousness of the concerns expressed by the least-developed countries (LDCs) in the Zanzibar Declaration adopted by their Ministers in July 2001. We recognize that the integration of the LDCs into the multilateral trading system requires meaningful market access, support for the diversification of their production and export base, and trade-related technical assistance and capacity building. We agree that the meaningful integration of LDCs into the trading system and the global economy will involve efforts by all WTO Members. We commit ourselves to the objective of duty-free, quota-free market access for products originating from LDCs. In this regard, we welcome the significant market access improvements by WTO Members in advance of the Third UN Conference on LDCs (LDC-III), in Brussels, May 2001. We further commit ourselves to consider additional measures for progressive improvements in market access for LDCs. Accession of LDCs remains a priority for the Membership. We agree to work to facilitate and accelerate negotiations with acceding LDCs. We instruct the Secretariat to reflect the priority we attach to LDCs' accessions in the annual plans for technical assistance. We reaffirm the commitments we undertook at LDC-III, and agree that the WTO should take into account, in designing its work programme for LDCs, the trade-related elements of the Brussels Declaration and Programme of Action,出口貿易流程 貿易公司出口退稅【多圖】【下載】 consistent with the WTO's mandate, adopted at LDC-III. We instruct the Sub-Committee for Least-Developed Countries to design such a work programme and to report on the agreed work programme to the General Council at its first meeting in 2002.

43. We endorse the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least-Developed Countries (IF) as a viable model for LDCs' trade development. We urge development partners to significantly increase contributions to the IF Trust Fund and WTO extra-budgetary trust funds in favour of LDCs. We urge the core agencies, in coordination with development partners, to explore the enhancement of the IF with a view to addressing the supply-side constraints of LDCs and the extension of the model to all LDCs, following the review of the IF and the appraisal of, the ongoing Pilot Scheme in selected LDCs. We request the Director-General, following coordination with heads of the other agencies, to provide an interim report to the General Council in December 2002 and a full report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on all issues affecting LDCs.


SPECIAL AND DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT

44. We reaffirm that provisions for special and differential treatment are an integral part of the WTO Agreements. We note the concerns expressed regarding their operation in addressing specific constraints faced by developing countries, particularly least-developed countries. In that connection, we also note that some Members have proposed a Framework Agreement on Special and Differential Treatment (WT/GC/W/442). We therefore agree that all special and differential treatment provisions shall be reviewed with a view to strengthening them and making them more precise, effective and operational. In this connection, we endorse the work programme on special and differential treatment set out in the Decision on Implementation-Related Issues and Concerns.
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE WORK PROGRAMME

45. The negotiations to be pursued under the terms of this Declaration shall be concluded not later than 1 January 2005. The Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference will take stock of progress in the negotiations, provide any necessary political guidance, and take decisions as necessary. When the results of the negotiations in all areas have been established, a Special Session of the Ministerial Conference will be held to take decisions regarding the adoption and implementation of those results.

46. The overall conduct of the negotiations shall be supervised by a Trade Negotiations Committee under the authority of the General Council. The Trade Negotiations Committee shall hold its first meeting not later than 31 January 2002. It shall establish appropriate negotiating mechanisms as required and supervise the progress of the negotiations.

47. With the exception of the improvements and clarifications of the Dispute Settlement Understanding, the conduct, conclusion and entry into force of the outcome of the negotiations shall be treated as parts of a single undertaking. However, agreements reached at an early stage may be implemented on a provisional or a definitive basis. Early agreements shall be taken into account in assessing the overall balance of the negotiations.

48. Negotiations shall be open to:

(i) all Members of the WTO; and

(ii) States and separate customs territories currently in the process of accession and those that inform Members, at a regular meeting of the General Council, of their intention to negotiate the terms of their membership and for whom an accession working party is established.

Decisions on the outcomes of the negotiations shall be taken only by WTO Members.

49. The negotiations shall be conducted in a transparent manner among participants, in order to facilitate the effective participation of all. They shall be conducted with a view to ensuring benefits to all participants and to achieving an overall balance in the outcome of the negotiations.

50. The negotiations and the other aspects of the Work Programme shall take fully into account the principle of special and differential treatment for developing and least-developed countries embodied in: Part IV of the GATT 1994; the Decision of 28 November 1979 on Differential and More Favourable Treatment, Reciprocity and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries; the Uruguay Round Decision on Measures in Favour of Least-Developed Countries; and all other relevant WTO provisions.

51. The Committee on Trade and Development and the Committee on Trade and Environment shall, within their respective mandates, each act as a forum to identify and debate developmental and environmental aspects of the negotiations, in order to help achieve the objective of having sustainable development appropriately reflected.

52. Those elements of the Work Programme which do not involve negotiations are also accorded a high priority. They shall be pursued under the overall supervision of the General Council, which shall report on progress to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference.


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